On March 17, 1805, Napoleon Bonaparte’s armies conquered northern Italy. Two months later, Napoleon had himself crowned at the Duomo di Milano, taking the title “Emperor of the French and King of Italy.” To commemorate his victory, Napoleon ordered a grand Arco delle Vittorie (Arch of Victory) to be built at the point on the famous Simplon Road where his troops had entered the city. Construction began in 1806 but was discontinued when Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo in 1815. Read More
My guide for the day, Valery Brady, began my tour of Chisinau, Moldova, at the Pushkin Museum. Alexander Pushkin, considered to be Russia’s greatest poet and the founder of modern literature, angered Emperor Alexander I with his poem, “Ode to Liberty,” which was critical of the regime. As a result, in May of 1820 he was banned from St. Petersburg for six years. Initially he traveled around the Caucasus and Crimea, but the Russian regime eventually exiled him to Chisinau, where he lived for three years in a typical Moldovan cottage located within what is today the museum compound.
While I looked around the cottage, my guide serenaded me on the museum’s old upright piano. Valery is a classically trained musician who, in his own words, is doing nothing with his music. As the day wore on it became more and more evident that he was unhappy. Our talk turned to spiritual matters and he asked my opinion on the meaning of life. For more than an hour we discussed subjects ranging from quantum physics to the nature of God. Valery shared with me that he’d been suffering terribly from the loss of two very important people in his life: a young relative and his mother-in-law, whom he had loved dearly. I don’t know what I said or did, but at the end of our tour, he told me he’d started the day believing that there is no point to life, but that I had turned his opinion around 180 degrees. He said everything around him looked different – even the colors were richer – he felt joy in a way that he hadn’t for a very long time. Read More
“When you think of Moldova, you must think of Moldovan wine,” my tour guide said. I’d come to this Eastern European country with no research and little knowledge; it was just one of four countries in Europe I’d not yet visited and I was curious. Whenever I mentioned the name of the country to anyone, I received a blank stare in return. No one, absolutely no one, had heard of Moldova. My guide explained that grapes have been grown in Moldova for thousands of years. The low rolling hills and Bordeaux-like climate make it the perfect location for wine production and today it is the the most important industry in the country. Read More
The volcano caldera in Santorini is a study in blue, and white, with the ominous black volcano cone squatting in the center of the lagoon. Since the beginning of the Christian Era, the volcano has had eight eruption episodes, in 46-47, 726, 1570-1573, 1707-1711, 1866-1870, 1925-1928, 1939-1941, and 1950. Though the average number of years between eruptions is 272, there is an alarming trend that points to an acceleration of eruptions. The interval between the first and second events was 679 years; between the second and third 847 years. But from the 16th century on the interval shrank, with 138, 159, 58, 13, and 9 years, respectively, between eruptions. Read More
This is the iconic photo that every visitor to Santorini wants to capture, the blue domes and whitewashed houses in the village of Oia, Santorini. While I found the scenery visually captivating, I was more curious about the history of the cave architecture of Santorini – how it came about and why it evolved in the way it did. Before the days when tourism became the economic mainstay on the island, Santorini residents predominantly earned a living through fishing, winemaking, and seafaring trade. They lived off the land and in harmony with nature, thus it is not surprising that their dwellings also took advantage of the natural landscape. Read More
Throughout its history, the Greek island of Santorini has been shaped by volcanism. The island first appeared about two-million years ago when volcanic craters emerged from the Aegean Sea. Initially, the craters united into a small round island with a caldera in the center. Herodotus tells us that the island’s first name, Strongili (meaning “the round one”), came from that formation. Regular eruptions increased the size of the island, and eventually settlers arrived from other Cyclades islands like Naxos, Paris, and Mykonos. These “pre-Greeks” built Akrotiri, which became the island’s most important city.
Around 1450 B.C., Santorini suffered one of the largest volcanic eruptions ever recorded on Earth. The Theran eruption, as it is known, broke the island into three pieces, allowing the sea to rush in and flood the caldera of the volcano. The flourishing town of Akrotiri, often referred to as the “Minoan Pompeii,” was simultaneously destroyed and preserved by ash from that massive eruption. It lay buried and forgotten for centuries, until it was rediscovered by archeologists in the middle of the 19th century.
To date, about 30 buildings (an estimated ten percent of ancient Akrotiri) have been excavated in what would have been the the city’s main port. The architecture of the buildings was advanced. Many were three stories high, built of carved volcanic stones and held together with mud cement. Homes were equipped with inside toilets and many walls were decorated with intricate frescoes that depicted scenes from distant lands, proving that Akrotirians were well-traveled. Read More